Extremely soft. Very infrequently does one see softer dynamics than this, which are specified with additional ps.
Very soft. Usually the softest indication in a piece of music, though softer dynamics are often specified with additional ps.
Soft; louder than pianissimo.
Moderately soft; louder than piano.
Moderately loud; softer than forte. If no dynamic appears, mezzo-forte is assumed to be the prevailing dynamic level.
Loud. Used as often as piano to indicate contrast.
Very loud. Usually the loudest indication in a piece, though louder dynamics are often specified with additional fs (such as fortississimo – seen below).
Extremely loud. Very infrequently does one see louder dynamics than this, which are specified with additional fs.
Literally "forced", denotes an abrupt, fierce accent on a single sound or chord. When written out in full, it applies to the sequence of sounds or chords under or over which it is placed.
A gradual increase in volume.
Can be extended under many notes to indicate that the volume steadily increases during the passage.
A gradual decrease in volume. Can be extended in the same manner as crescendo.
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